Etiology of obstructive sleep apnea

Anatomical risk factors include

  • An oropharynx “filled” by a short or retracted jaw
  • Basis of prominent tongue or tonsils
  • Round head shape and a short neck
  • A neck circumference> 43 cm (> 17 inches)
  • Thick side pharyngeal walls
  • Side para-pharyngeal fat pads
  • Anatomical risk factors are common among obese people.

Other risk factors identified include postmenopausal status, aging, and use of alcohol or narcotics. There is a family history of obstructive sleep apnea in 25-40% of cases, which probably reflect hereditary factors that affect the ventilatory impulse or an unusual genetic craniofacial structure. The risk of OSA in a family member is proportional to the number of family members affected.

The most comfortable snore guard mouthpiece

Hypothyroidism, acromegaly and sometimes stroke can cause OSA. The disorders that occur most frequently in patients with obstructive sleep apnea include hypertension, stroke, diabetes, hyperlipidemia, gastroesophageal reflux, nocturnal angina, heart failure, and atrial fibrillation or other arrhythmias.

As obesity is a common risk factor for obstructive sleep apnea and the syndrome of obesity and hypoventilation, both disorders often coexist.

The inspiratory effort against an obstructed upper airway causes inspirational paroxysms, reduced gas exchange, altered sleep architecture, and partial or total awakenings. These factors may interact and cause characteristic signs and symptoms, including hypoxia, hypercapnia, and sleep fragmentation.

Sleep apnea is an extreme aspect of upper respiratory tract resistance. Less severe forms that do not cause O2 desaturation include:

  • Snore
  • High resistance to airflow of the airways that causes noisy inspiration but no sleep wakes
  • Upper airway resistance syndrome, characterized by increasing snoring that end in respiratory-related arousals.

Patients with the airway resistance syndrome are younger and less obese than those with obstructive sleep apnea and complain of daytime somnolence more than patients with primary snoring. Frequent arousals occur, but strict criteria for apneas and hypopneas may not be present. The symptoms, diagnostic evaluation, and treatment of upper airway resistance syndrome and snoring are the same as obstructive sleep apnea.

What causes snoring?

Key concepts

  • Obesity, upper respiratory tract anatomy, family history, certain disorders (e.g., hypothyroidism, stroke), and the use of alcohol or sedatives increase the risk of OSA.
  • Patients usually snore, have restless, restless sleep, and often experience daytime drowsiness and tiredness
  • Many people who snore do not suffer OSA.
  • The most frequent disorders in patients with obstructive sleep apnea include hypertension, stroke, diabetes, gastroesophageal reflux, nocturnal angina, heart failure, atrial fibrillation, or other arrhythmias.
  • The diagnosis is confirmed by polysomnography.
  • Control modifiable risk factors and treat the majority of patients with CPAP and oral devices designed to open the airway.
  • Consider surgery for anomalies that invade the airway or if the disorder is intractable.

Cure rhinitis, allergies and breathing pathologies

Chronic rhinitis and allergies cause swelling of the mucous membranes, with obstruction of the airways. Curing the cause, snoring improves. In the case of deviated nasal septum, a septoplasty is recommended to improve breathing. Turbinate bone pathologies, nasal polyposis, and septum deviation can also be treated simultaneously with a laser intervention against snoring.

Categories: Health Tips

Investment in real estate

Often we are that the best investments are in real estate. I am of the opinion that all statements have two sides, two approaches.


In real estate, not everything that shines is gold. There are good investments, which are the ones we regularly see or remember or presume, but there are bad ones, of which little is known because sometimes we tend to hide them, justify them or minimize them.

Then, it is not too bad to ask the following questions: Was the investment I made in this property good? Will it be that when I sell it, I will get good performance? Or, will it be good to buy a house or land today?

These questions are reasonable and obey that our investment in real estate is just that, an investment. Of course, there is another type of shopping, which responds to luxury or whim, as a work of art or a jewel, that we probably will never sell.

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This type of purchase should be taken as an expense and not as an investment since we will hardly find another person who has similar tastes and who is willing to pay the same or a little more.

So to evaluate if the investment we want to make is good, we should compare it with another alternative.


We can analyze what options we have in the market. Look for similarities regarding risks, times, conditions, etc., then evaluate them in their different magnitudes. One of them and the one that will attract us most will be the performance that this investment has.

But how is it measured? The best way will be through a rate of return, expressed in percentage (as much percent), as we see it in the system banks and that we know as “interest.” This rate of return is divided into active and passive.

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Active is the interest rate we pay the bank for any loan we make, and currently, ranges from 8% to 18%.

The passive interest rate is what we will pay this bank when we make savings, either at sight or fixed terms, 3, 5, 10 or more years. In savings on demand, the rate is 2% or more.

However, in longer terms, we can access rates of 6%, 8% or better, depending on the contractual conditions. One thing is certain: the greater the passive rate of return, the greater the conditions that will hold the investment and the greater the risk.

We must take into account something important: inflation.


This will be the loss of purchasing power of our currency that will affect the investments; it means that we will be losing year to year the purchasing capacity. And at the end of a period, we want to have more money, not less.

In the analysis for the best decision of an investment should be taken into account: 1º The conditions and amounts, 2º the risk, 3º the yield, 4º the inflation, and 5º the term or time in which we want the return that investment.

Categories: Investment

Laser Hair Reduction Takes Top Spot in Further Cosmetology Studies

Laser hair removalThe fastest growing area of study in additional cosmetology classes is laser hair reduction. The trend changes every so often, with new procedures taking top priority, but every cosmetology student needs to be aware of the importance of further studies. Simply completing a basic cosmetology course will be all they need to start working in the industry, but there are many additional studies they could take up to hone their skills, learn new skills and focus on further areas of expertise.

Many consumers are looking for cosmetologists who are specialized, as they tend to go to one specialist for each area of their beauty needs these days instead of expecting one beautician to be able to do it all. Schools such as cosmetology schools in greenville sc provide students with a number of additional learning opportunities beyond the basic classes.

Laser hair removal and reduction has become increasingly popular over the last decade, with many businesses appearing that only offer this service. Specialization has helped it to thrive as a niche sub-industry within the greater cosmetology market.

No other further education class within cosmetology has seen such support both from students and consumers, as it is an in-demand service. It would appear that it will only become more in demand as time goes on. As mentioned before, these beauty trends definitely change with the times, but this is one that has not only held steady but has increased over time with no signs of slowing down.

If laser hair reduction does not offer suitable positions, there are many other additional education courses that cosmetology students can focus on, but it is definitely a good one to have. Cosmetology school graduates, such as those graduating from cosmetology schools in Greenville, SC, are benefiting from having additional training beyond the basic cosmetology course. They are finding that they make more attractive applicants and that they are reaching more consumers with their own practices once they set up a private business. Having more qualifications to their name and being able to professionally perform multiple services allows them to achieve greater success and branch out into new parts of the industry they might not otherwise have been able to. The role of laser hair reduction classes in a full cosmetologist portfolio cannot be understated.

Categories: Cosmetology
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